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Non-U.S. Governments, Regional and Int’l Institutions

Climate and Security Resources: Non-U.S. Governments, Regional & International Institutions

This page includes a list of resources on the nexus of climate change and security by Non-U.S. Governments and Regional Institutions.


2023: NATO Climate Change and Security Impact Assessment, July 2023

2023: NATO Climate Change and Security Action Plan: Compendium of Best Practices, July 2023

2023: The NATO Greenhouse Gases Emission Mapping and Analytical Methodology, July 2023


2021: Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction, Special Report on Drought 2021,” United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction, 2021.

2021: “Regional Consultation for the South Caucasus – Armenia and Georgia: Co-operation opportunities for addressing the security implications of climate change,” OSCE and adelphi, July 2021

2021: “Regional Consultation for the South Caucasus – Azerbaijan and Georgia: Co-operation opportunities for addressing the security implications of climate change,” OSCE and adelphi, July 2021

2021: “The UN Security Council and Climate Change,” Security Council Report, June 21, 2021

2021: “NATO Climate and Security Action Plan,” North Atlantic Treaty Organization, June 14, 2021

2021: “The impact of disasters and crises on agriculture and food security: 2021”, Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations

2021: “Global Report on Food Crises-2021,” United Nations World Food Program, May 5, 2021

2021: Regional Assessment for South-Eastern Europe: Security Implications of Climate Change, OSCE and adelphi


2020: Climate Change and Defence Roadmap. European Union External Action Service


2019: Responding to the Climate Crisis: An Implementation Plan. New Zealand Ministry of Defence and the New Zealand Defence Force.

2019: New Zealand Defense Capability Plan 2019, New Zealand Ministry of Defence

2019: “Implications of Climate Change on Defence and Security in the South Pacific by 2030,” Observatory on Defence and Climate at the French Institute for International and Strategic Affairs (IRIS), commissioned by the 2017 South Pacific Defence Ministers’ Meeting (SPDMM); Executive Summary

2019: Joint Communiqué, South Pacific Defence Ministers’ Meeting

2019: Open Debate Concept Note, UN Security Council Presidency of the Dominican Republic


2018: Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency: Regional Consultation on Climate & Security in the Caribbean: A Roadmap to Resilience

2018: New Zealand Ministry of Defence: The Climate Crisis – Defence Readiness and Responsibilities

2018: EU External Action Service (EEAS): Climate, Peace and Security: The Time for Action

2018: Council of the European Union: Council Conclusions on Climate Diplomacy

2018: Munich Security Conference: Munich Security Report 2018

2018: Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE): Climate Change and Security in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Southern Caucasus

2018: UN Security Council: Statement by the President of the Security Council


2017: UN Security Council: Arria Meeting, Preparing for the security implications of rising temperatures

2017: UN Security Council: Resolution 2349

2017: Croatia Security Intelligence Agency: 2017 Security Intelligence Report


2016: Australian Department of Defence: Defence White Paper


2015: UN Security Council: Press Release: Issues Facing Small Island Developing States ‘Global Challenges’ Demanding Collective Responsibility, Secretary-General Tells Security Council.

2015: UN Security Council: Concept Note: Open debate on “Maintenance of international peace and security: peace and security challenges facing small island developing States”.

2015: Council of the European Union. Council conclusions on Climate Diplomacy. Foreign Affairs Council meeting.

2015: UN Security Council: Concept Note: Open Arria-formula meeting on the role of Climate Change as a threat multiplier for Global Security,  dialogue initiated by the Spanish and Malaysian permanent missions to the UN

2015: Climate Change: A Risk Assessment, Independent report commissioned by the UK Foreign Commonwealth Office

2015: A New Climate for Peace: Taking Action on Climate and Fragility Risks, Independent report commissioned by members of the G7
Produced by adelphi, International Alert, the Woodrow Wilson Center and the European Union Institute for Security Studies.


2014: Environmental and Energy Issues for the Military. Environment and Energy Security for the Americas, Military Resiliency and Readiness. Environmental and Energy Collaboration Group (EECG)

2014: Global Strategic Trends Out to 2045: UK Ministry of Defence (MOD), Development, Concepts and Doctrine Centre (DCDC)

2014: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability: IPCC Working Group II Contribution to AR5

2014: Organization for Security Co-operation in Europe (OSCE): Program Details, “Security Implications of Climate Change”


2013: Council of the European Union 2013. Council conclusions on EU Climate Diplomacy. Foreign Affairs Council meeting, Luxembourg 24

2013: The EU’s comprehensive approach to external conflict and crises, Joint Communication to the European Parliament and the Council, from the European Commission and the High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy

2013: NATO Centre of Excellence for Crisis Management and Disaster Response: Conference Details, “Visualizing Implications Of Climate Change On Military Activities And Relationships”

2013: Australian Government: Strong and Secure – A Strategy for Australia’s National Security

2013: Australian Government Department of Defence: Defence White Paper

2013: Asia-Pacific Network for Global Change Research (APN), Workshop Details, “Climate Change Adaptation, Disaster Risk Reduction and Loss and Damage”

2013: Arria Formula Meeting on Security Implications of Climate Change. UN Security Council


2012: G8 Foreign Ministers Meeting Chair’s Statement, pg. 10

2012: Environment and Security Initiative (ENVSEC): “Climate change in Eastern Europe: Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine”

2012: OSCE, EEA, Carec, German Federal Foreign Office: “Climate Change and the Water-Energy-Agriculture Nexus in Central Asia”

2012: OSCE, ENVSEC: “Experience of the European Union in Adaptation to Climate Change and its Application to Ukraine.”

2012: European Commission: Climate Change, Hydro-conflicts and Human Security (CLICO), Working Paper

2012: European Parliament. Resolution on the role of the Common Security and Defence Policy in case of climate-driven crises and natural disasters.

2012: United Kingdom Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA)


2011: Council of the European Union. Council conclusions on EU Climate Diplomacy. Brussels:  CEU.

2011: OSCE, EEA, ENVSEC: Scenario Report, “Climate Change and Food Security in Eastern Europe”

2011: Livelihood Security: Climate Change, Migration and Conflict in the Sahel, UNEP

2011: United Nations Security Council, Statement by the President of the Security Council: The impact of climate change on the maintenance of international peace and security. 6587th meeting on 20 July 2011.

2011: United Nations Security Council, Meeting: The impact of climate change on the maintenance of international peace and security. 6587th 20 July 2011.

2011: International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2011: Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation


2010: Strategic Concept 2010, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

2010: Council for Security Cooperation in the Asia-Pacific (CSCAP): Study Group on the Implications of Climate Change, Memo 15, “The Security Implications of Climate Change”

2010: Organization for Security Co-operation in Europe (OSCE): Shifting Bases, Shifting Perils: A Scoping Study on Security Implications of Climate Change in the OSCE Region and Beyond

2010: UK Strategic Defense and Security Review: Securing Britain in an Age of Uncertainty

2010: FOI Swedish Defense Research Agency: On Connecting Climate Change with Security and Armed Conflict

2010: NATO Science for Peace and Security Programme: Workshop Details, Climate Change and Security

2010: Mapping the Resilience of International River Basins to Future Climate Change-Induced Water Variability, World Bank


2009: Organization for Security Cooperation in Europe (OSCE): Conference on the security implications of climate change in the OSCE region

2009: Council of the European Union, Council conclusions on Climate change and security. 2985th Foreign Affairs Council meeting Brussels, 8 December 2009.

2009: UN Secretary General Report Climate change and its possible security implications (A/64/350)

2009: UN General Assembly: Resolution on climate change and its possible security implications (A/63/281)

2009: Australian Defence White Paper, Defending Australia in the Asia Pacific Century: Force 2030


2008: The National Security Strategy of the United Kingdom: Security in an interdependent world

2008: Royal United Services Institute: Delivering climate security: international security responses to a climate changed world

2008: European Commission: The European Union and the Arctic Region

2008: High Representative and European Commission to the European Council: Climate change and international security, Joint Paper to the European Council

2008: High Representative and European Council: Review on the Implementation of the European Security Strategy: Providing Security in a Changing World

2008: EU High Representative: Climate Change and Security: Follow-up recommendations by EUHR Solana

2008: For the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark: Assessing the security implications of climate change for West Africa Country case studies of Ghana and Burkina Faso, IISD


2007: Security Council Debate on climate change as threat to international peace and security, UN Security Council

2007: Council of the European Union: Presidency Conclusions June

2007: German Advisory Council on Global Change: World in Transition. Climate Change as a Security Risk

2007: FOI Swedish Defense Research Agency, The Geopolitics of Climate Change: Changes to the International System. Peter Haldén, Stockholm


2005:  The Stern Review: The Economics of Climate Change. Stern, Nicholas. Cambridge University Press, report commissioned by the Prime Minister and Chancellor of the Exchequer

2005: UNISDR: Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015. Building the resilience of nations and communities to disasters. UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction.


2003: EU European Security Strategy: A Secure Europe in a Better World


2002: German Ministry for the Environment 2002: Climate Change and Conflict

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