Climate and Security Resources: Academic, Think Tank and NGO
This page includes a list of resources on the nexus of climate change and security by a selection of Academic, Think Tank and NGO sources. For a full list see the Climate Security Resource Hub main page.
The Center for Climate and Security, September 2019. “A Climate Security Plan for America: A Presidential Plan for Combating the Security Risks of Climate Change,” Washington, DC: The Climate and Security Advisory Group, Chaired by the Center for Climate and Security in partnership with George Washington University’s Elliott School of International Affairs
2019 Climate and Security Fellowship Program’s “Risks Briefers,”: The Center for Climate and Security, the American Security Project and the Wilson Center, September 2019
Busby, Joshua, “A Clear and Present Danger: Climate Risks, the Energy System, and U.S. National Security,” in “Impact of Climate Risk on the Energy System Examining the Financial, Security, and Technology Dimensions,” the Council on Foreign Relations, pg 54, September 2019
Bolsen, Palm and Kingsland, “The Impact of Message Source on the Effectiveness of Communications About Climate Change,” Science Communication, Volume: 41 issue: 4, page(s): 464-487, August 1, 2019
Teicher, Hannah M., “Climate allies : how urban/military interdependence enables adaptation,” Ph. D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Urban Studies and Planning, June 2019
Council of Canadian Academies, The Expert Panel on Climate Change Risks and Adaptation Potential, “Canada’s Top Climate Change Risks,” 2019
Brosig et al, “Implications of Climate Change for the U.S. Army,” US Army War College, July 2019
Werrell, Femia and Conger (The Center for Climate and Security), “A ‘Responsibility To Prepare’: A Strategy For Presidential Leadership On The Security Risks Of Climate Change,” War on the Rocks, June 14, 2019
“Global Peace Index 2019: Measuring Peace in a Complex World,” Institute for Economics and Peace, June 2019
Rezzonico, Parthemore, “Nuclear Energy Developments, Climate Change, and Security in Egypt,” The Council on Strategic Risks, June 2019
Institute for Integrated Economics Research (IIER), “Reframing Climate Change as a Core National Security Issues,” Australian Defence Magazine, June 6, 2019
Conger, Fetzek, Fleishman, “Climate Change Lessons from the US Military: What Japanese Industry Can Learn from Another Global Enterprise,” Japan Series Report 2, The Center for Climate and Security, May 2019
Fetzek, Fleishman, Conger, Japanese Industry in an Unstable Climate: Reducing Exposure to the Security Implications of Climate Change,” Japan Series Report 1, The Center for Climate and Security, May 2019
Implications of Climate Change on Defence and Security in the South Pacific by 2030, Observatory on Defence and Climate at the French Institute for International and Strategic Affairs (IRIS), commissioned by the 2017 South Pacific Defence Ministers’ Meeting (SPDMM), May 2019; Executive Summary
Spratt, Dunlop, “Existential climate-related security risk: A scenario approach,” Breakthrough – National Centre for Climate Restoration, Foreword by Admiral Chris Barrie, AC RAN (Ret), May 2019
David Wallace-Wells,“The Uninhabitable Earth: Life After Warming,” February 2019
Femia, Werrell: “Significant Security Threats from Climate Change on the Horizon,” Defense Dossier, Issue 23, December 2018
Dakota Wood (Ed.), “2019 Index of U.S. Military Stregth, David Institute for National Security and Foreign Policy,” The Heritage Foundation
Fleishman, Goodman: “Climate Change and the U.S. Military,” Defense Dossier, Issue 23, December 2018
Fetzek and Barrett, “Climate Security Drivers in the Caribbean,” The Center for Climate and Security, December 2018
Parthemore, Femia and Werrell, “The global responsibility to prepare for intersecting climate and nuclear risks,” Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, October 22, 2018
A Security Analysis of the New IPCC Report: Prevent 2°C, Prepare for 1.5°, and Do So Responsibly, The Center for Climate and Security, October 18, 2018
“Governance for a Changing Climate,” Sustainable Solutions Lab, University of Massachusetts Boston, pg 41 (sidebar), September 2018
Climate Change in the Age of Great Power Competition, The American Security Project, 2018
Water Crises, Security and Climate Change, Center for the National Interest, 2018
Climate Change and the UN Security Council, Edited by Shirley V. Scott and Charlotte Ku, 2018
Climate Change: a global security and humanitarian challenge, The European Security and Defense Union, February 2018
The Time for “What’s Next?” is Now: Preparing for a Climate Changed Future Within our Military and Coastal Communities,” Small Wars Journal, July 2018
Europe’s Responsibility to Prepare: Managing Climate Security Risks in a Changing World, The Center for Climate and Security in partnership with the Clingendael Institute and the Planetary Security Initiative, June 2018
How Climate Change Impacts National Security (One-Pager), The Center for Climate and Security, June 2018
Working Group on Climate, Nuclear and Security Affairs. Report Two: A Clear Path for Complex Threats, Nolan and Parthemore, The Center for Climate and Security, May 17, 2018
Working Group on Climate, Nuclear and Security Affairs. Breakout Briefer: Stability At Stake: Addressing Critical Regions Facing Complex Climate, Security, And Nuclear Risks, Bhatiya, The Center for Climate and Security, May 17, 2018
Working Group on Climate, Nuclear and Security Affairs. Breakout Briefer: Expanding The Climate-Nuclear-Security Toolkit, Conger and Fetzek, The Center for Climate and Security, May 17, 2018
Most atolls will be uninhabitable by the mid-21st century because of sea-level rise exacerbating wave-driven flooding, Storlazzi et al, April 27, 2018
“We must prepare and react to climate and security risks through space technologies,” in
“Climate Change: a global security and humanitarian challenge,” The European Security and Defense Union, pp 26-29, February 2018
Military Expert Panel Report. Sea Level Rise, and the U.S. Military’s Mission, 2nd Edition, The Center for Climate and Security, February 26, 2018
Climate and Security Advisory Group. A Responsibility to Prepare – Strengthening National and Homeland Security in the Face of a Changing Climate: Roadmap and Recommendations for the U.S. Government, The Center for Climate and Security in partnership with the Elliott School of International Affairs, February 26, 2018
Munich Security Conference: Munich Security Report 2018
“Chapter 6: Climate Hazards, Food Security and the Arab Uprisings,” Lost in Translation: New Paradigms for the Arab Spring,” Edited by Uzi Rabi and Abdelilah Bouasria, Sussex Academic Press, May/ June 2017
“Handbook of Transitions in Energy and Climate Security,” Edited by Robert E. Looney, Routledge, 2017
“Climate Wars? A Systematic Review of Empirical Analyses on the Links Between Climate Change and Violent Conflict,” Kendra Sakaguchi, Anil Varughese, and Graeme Auld, International Studies Review, 5 October 2017.
“Action on Climate and Security Risks,” Vivekananda, Fetzek, Mobjörk, Sawas and Wolfmaier, adelphi, The Center for Climate and Security, SIPRI, December 2017
“Sea Level Rise, Deterritorialized States and Migration: The Need for a New Framework,” Douglas, The Center for Climate and Security, November 2017
“Working Group on Climate, Nuclear, and Security Affairs – Report One: A Framework for Understanding and Managing the Intersection of Climate Change, Security and Nuclear Affairs,” Parthemore, Nolan and Rezzonico, The Center for Climate and Security, November 2017
“Sustainability, Stability, Security,” World Wildlife Fund, November 2017
“Facing an Unpredictable Threat: Is NATO Ideally Placed to Manage Climate Change as a Non-Traditional Threat Multiplier?,” Amar Causevic, Connections: The Quarterly Journal, George C. Marshall European Centre for Security Studies, October 2017
Out of the Frying Pan Part 1 (understanding the links between climate change and violent conflict) and Part 2 (building resilience to climate change and violent conflict),
Grene and Cammaer, Christian Aid, October 2017
“The Securitization of Climate Change: Australian and United States’ Military Responses (2003 – 2013),” Michael Durant Thomas, The Anthropocene: Politik—Economics—Society—Science, Springer, 2017
A Responsibility to Prepare: Governing in an Age of Unprecedented Risk and Unprecedented Foresight, Werrell, Femia, Goodman and Fetzek, The Center for Climate and Security, August 2017
“Epicenters of Climate and Security: The New Geostrategic Landscape of the Anthropocene,” The Center for Climate and Security, June 2017
The Alliance in a Changing Climate: Bolstering the NATO Mission Through Climate Preparedness, Fetzek, The Center for Climate and Security, May 2017
“India, Climate Change and Security in South Asia,” Antos, The Center for Climate and Security, May 2017
Why and how to use foresight tools to manage climate security risks, The Center for Climate and Security, April 2017
“A Responsibility to Prepare: Why the U.S. National Security Community Takes Climate Risks Seriously,” Werrell and Femia, The Center for Climate and Security, April 2017
“Responsibility to Prepare: A Whole of Government Approach to Climate and Security in Three Steps,” Femia and Werrell, The Center for Climate and Security, March 2017
“Climate Security Risks in the Asia Pacific: An Opportunity for U.S. Engagement,” Fetzek, The Center for Climate and Security, Feb 2017
Coastal Megacities vs the Sea: Climate and Security in Urban Spaces, Vivekananda and Bhatiya, The Center for Climate and Security, Feb 2017
2016: “The U.S. Department of Defense Rationale for Innovative Energy Investments,” Barnes, Dec 2016
2016: “Climate Change, the Erosion of State Sovereignty, and World Order,” Werrell and Femia (the Center for Climate and Security), The Brown Journal of World Affairs, Volume XII, Issue 2, Spring-Summer 2016, pp. 221-235. Full article here.
2016: 2016 Special Issue: Climate Change and Policy, Marine Corps University Journal
2016: “Armed-conflict risks enhanced by climate-related disasters in ethnically fractionalized countries,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Schleussner et al, July 25 2016
Voski, Anaïs. (2016). The Role of Climate Change in Armed Conflicts across the Developing World and in the Ongoing Syrian War. Carleton Review of International Affairs. 3. 10.22215/cria.v3i0.123.
2016: Putting Environmental Stress (Back) on the Mass Atrocities Agenda, The Stanley Foundation
2016: The Climate and Security Advisory Group (CSAG) Briefing Book for a New Administration, The Center for Climate and Security in partnership with the Elliott School of International Affairs
2016: Military Expert Panel Report: Sea Level Rise and the U.S. Military’s Mission, The Center for Climate and Security
2016: Climate Security Consensus Project Statement, The Center for Climate and Security
2016: The Climate-Nuclear-Security Nexus: A Collision Course or a Road to New Opportunities?, The Center for Climate and Security
2016: A Storm Without Rain: Yemen, Water, Climate Change, and Conflict, Collin Douglas, The Center for Climate and Security. August 2016
2016: “Climate Change and US National Security: Past, Present and Future,” Peter Engelke and Daniel Chiu, The Atlantic Council
2016: The Commander in Chief’s Authority to Combat Climate Change, Nevitt, M. Cardozo Law Review (and summary via New Security Beat)
2015: The U.S. Asia-Pacific Rebalance, National Security and Climate Change, The Center for Climate and Security in partnership with Carnegie Mellon University Civil and Environmental Engineering, Center for a New American Security and the University of Oxford.
2015: A Catch 22 or an Opportunity? Climate change and instability in the Middle East and North Africa – the cases of Syria and Egypt, Femia and Werrell, the Center for Climate and Security
2015: “The Securitisation of Climate Change in the United States: The Integration of Climate Threats Into the Security Sector,” Franziskus von Lucke, University of Tübingen, ClimaSec, June 2015
2015: Climate Security 101, The Center for Climate and Security
2015: Hampton Roads, Virginia and the Military’s Battle Against Sea Level Rise, Matt Connolly, The Center for Climate and Security
2015: Be Prepared: Climate Change, Security and Australia’s Defence Force, Climate Council
2015: Climate Security 101, The Center for Climate and Security
2015: The Longest Conflict: Australia’s Climate Security Challenge, Centre for Policy Development
2015: The SAIS Review of International Affairs: The Era of Man: Environmental Security on a Changing Planet, Volume 35, Number 1, Winter-Spring 2015
2015: Climate Change and Vietnamese Fisheries: Opportunities for Conflict Prevention, Dr Marcus D. King, The Center for Climate and Security
2015: A New Climate for Peace: Taking Action on Climate and Fragility Risks, Independent report commissioned by members of the G7
Produced by adelphi, International Alert, the Woodrow Wilson Center and the European Union Institute for Security Studies.
2015: Climate Change as Threat Multiplier: Understanding the Broader Nature of the Risk, The Center for Climate and Security
2015: The Era of Man: Environmental Security on a Changing Planet. The SAIS Review of International Affairs. Volume 35, Number 1, Winter-Spring 2015
2015: Climate Change in the Fertile Crescent and implications of the recent Syrian drought. Kelley, Colin P.; Mohtadi, Shahrzad; Cane, Mark; Seager, Richard; Kushnir, Yochanan. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.
2014: Topic Guide: Conflict, Climate and Environment. Peters, K. and J. Vivekananda, ODI and International Alert
2014: Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan: Land and Water Conflicts, The Center for Climate and Security
2014: Water, drought, climate change, and conflict in Syria. Gleick, P.H., in Weather, Climate and Society
2014: Climate Security and Justice for Small Island Developing States. The Hague Institute for Global Justice
2014: [Update] Climate and Security 101: Why the U.S. National Security Establishment Takes Climate Change Seriously, The Center for Climate and Security
2014: Migration as a climate adaptation strategy in developed nations, The Center for Climate and Security
2014: Environmental and Energy Issues for the Military. Environment and Energy Security for the Americas, Military Resiliency and Readiness. Environmental and Energy Collaboration Group (EECG)
2014: The U.S. Military, 3D Printing, and a Climate Secure Future, The Center for Climate and Security
2014: “Global Estimates 2014: People Displaced by Disasters,” Norwegian Refugee Council, Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre
2014: Message to Davos: Climate Change Risk Assessments Need to Go Big, The Center for Climate and Security
2014: “National Security and the Accelerating Risks of Climate Change,” CNA Corporation
2014: Forced Migration Review. Refugee Studies Centre, University of Oxford
2014: The U.S. Military, 3D Printing, and a Climate Secure Future, The Center for Climate and Security
2014: Climate Change and EU Security Policy: An Unmet Challenge. Youngs, R. Carnegie Europe
2013: The Arab Spring and Climate Change. Werrell, C. and Femia, F. Center for Climate and Security, CAP, The Stimson Center.
2013: Thirty-Eight Leading U.S. National Security Experts Urge Action on International Climate Change Initiatives. Partnership for a Secure America
2013: Climate Change, Conflict and Certainty: New Research in Context, The Center for Climate and Security
2013: Hydropolitics, Climate Change and Peace-building in the South Caucasus, The Center for Climate and Security
2013: The Climate-Water-Energy Security Nexus in Central Asia, The Center for Climate and Security
2013: Environmental Security, Military Planning, and Civilian Research: The Case of Water. O’Lear, S., Briggs, C. Denning, G. Environment Magazine.
2013: Understanding Climate Diplomacy: Building diplomatic capacity and systems to avoid dangerous climate change. Mabey, N. Gallager, B, Born, C. E3G.
2013: Backdraft: The Conflict Potential of Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation. Dabelko, G. et al. Woodrow Wilson Center.
2012: Syria: Climate Change, Drought and Social Unrest, The Center for Climate and Security
2012: Climate Extremes: Recent Trends With Implications for National Security, Harvard University
2012: Protecting Americans in the 21st Century: Communicating Priorities for 2012 and Beyond. National Homeland Security Consortium.
2012: The 3D Printing Revolution, Climate Change and National Security: An Opportunity for U.S. Leadership, The Center for Climate and Security
2012: Eye on Iran: Lake Urmia, Water, Climate and Security in a Volatile Region, The Center for Climate and Security
2012: A Marshall Plan to Combat Climate Change in the Asia-Pacific: The Missing Piece of the New U.S. Security Strategy, The Center for Climate and Security
2012: Mali: Migration, Militias, Coups and Climate Change, The Center for Climate and Security
2012: High Tide on Main Street. Rising Sea Level and the Coming Coastal Crisis. Englander, John.
2012: When National Disasters Go Global: Drought in the U.S., Food and Global Insecurity, The Center for Climate and Security
2012: Climate Security Report. Foley, C. and Holland, A. American Security Project.
2012: Climate-Security a Reality, Not a Narrative, The Center for Climate and Security
2012: Egypt’s Political Transition and the Rising Sea: An Opportunity for Reform, The Center for Climate and Security
2012: Building a New Libya in a New Climate: Water as a Key to Cooperation, The Center for Climate and Security
2012: Climate Change & International Security: The Arctic as a Bellwether. Huebert, R. et al., Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES)
2012: Climate and Security 101: Why the U.S. National Security Establishment Takes Climate Change Seriously, The Center for Climate and Security
2012: Climate Change, Migration, and Conflict in Northwest Africa Rising Dangers and Policy Options Across the Arc of Tension. Werz, M. and Conley, L. Center for American Progress and Heinrich Böll Stiftung
2012: Cooperation from Strength: The United States, China and the South China Sea. Cronin, P. et al., Center for a New American Security (CNAS)
2012: A New Security Architecture for the Arctic: An American Perspective, Conley, H. et al., Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS)
2012: Water Scarcity, Regional Security and Comprehensive Planning. Remarks as prepared for the Al Nahrain Center workshop Water, Food, Energy and the Security of Iraq. Briggs, C. Air University, USAF
2012: Climate Change in UK security policy: implications for development assistance? Harris, K. Overseas Development Institute (ODI)
2012: Special Issue: Climate Change and Conflict. Journal of Peace Research.
2012: Climate Change, Migration, and Conflict, Werz, Conley, Center for American Progress and Heinrich Böll Stiftung
2012: Developing Strategic and Operational Environmental Intelligence Capabilities, Intelligence and National Security, Briggs, C. Intelligence and National Security 27:5, 653-668
2011: Climate Security Vulnerability in Africa. Busby, J. Presentation, Woodrow Wilson Center
2011: The Inadequate U.S. Response to a Major Security Threat: Climate Change, The Center for Climate and Security
2011: A New Libya in a New Climate: Charting a Sustainable Course for the Post-Gaddafi Era, The Center for Climate and Security
2011: Thailand Forecast: Floods, Droughts and Political Instability, The Center for Climate and Security
2011: Transatlantic Dialogue on Climate Change and Security: Final Report. Holland, A. London: International Institute for Strategic Studies
2011: If Climate Change is a Security Threat Who’s Qualified to Fight It? Hint: Everyone, The Center for Climate and Security
2011: The Nile Basin: Preventing Water Conflict, The Center for Climate and Security
2011: Conflicts Associated with the Global Climate. Hsiang, Meng & Cane. Presentation, Woodrow Wilson Center
2011: Can Political Institutions Avert Violence from Climate Change? Research Brief – August 2011. Kuperman, A. Austin, Tx: Strauss Center CCAPS
2011: Unintended Consequences: Thomas Midgley and the Geo-engineering Treadmill, The Center for Climate and Security
2011: Degrees of Risk: Defining a Risk Management Framework for Climate Security. Mabey, N. et al. E3G
2011: The inadequate US response to a major security threat: Climate change, Femia, F., Parthemore, C. Werrell, C. The Bulletin of Atomic Scientists
2010: Climate Change and Mediterranean Security. Brauch, H.-G., Barcelona: IEMed.
2010: Locating Climate Insecurity: Where Are the Most Vulnerable Places in Africa? Busby, J. et al. Austin, Texas: The Robert S. Strauss Center.
2010: Mapping Climate Change and Security in North Africa. Busby, J. et al. Washington, DC: GMF.
2010: Climate change and conflict: Working Paper. A framework for analysis and action. Campbell, I. London: Saferworld.
2010: Climate change and conflict: Lessons from community conservancies in northern Kenya. Conflict Development Center, IISD and Saferworld. Nairobi, Winnipeg and London.
2010: Climate-Related Impacts on National Security in Mexico and Central America. Feakin, T. and Depledge, D. Royal United Services Institute (RUSI).
2010: Climate Security: Impacts and Opportunities for Transatlantic Relations. Feakin, T. and Depledge, D. Washington, DC: GMF.
2010: Shifting Bases, Shifting Perils: A Scoping Study on Security Implications of Climate Change in the OSCE Region and Beyond. Maas, A. et al. Berlin: Adelphi Research in Kooperation mit Chatham House und Cimera.
2010: Facing the Climate Security Threat: Why the Security Community Needs a “Whole-of-Government” Response to Global Climate Change. Mabey, N. Washington, DC: GMF.
2010: Climate Conflict: how global warming threatens security and what to do about it. Mazo, J., London: International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS).
2010: Climate Change and National Security: A field map and analysis of funding opportunities. Sherry, C., Philanthropic Consulting
2010: Future Landscapes of Conflict or Cooperation? Climate Security Needs Transatlantic Leadership. Taenzler, D. and Carius, A. Washington, DC: GMF.
2010: Environmental Change, Strategic Foresight, and Impacts on Military Power: Redefining the Environment for Scenario Planning. Briggs, C. Strategic Studies Institute.
2009: Environmental Security, Abrupt Climate Change and Strategic Intelligence. Briggs, C., U.S. Department of Energy
2009: Climate Change and Security in Africa. A Study for the Nordic-African Foreign Ministers Meeting. Brown, O. and A. Crawford. Winnipeg: International Institute for Sustainable Development.
2009: Rising Temperatures, Rising Tensions. Climate Change and the Risk of Violent Conflict in the Middle East. Brown, O. and A. Crawford. Winnipeg: International Institute for Sustainable Development.
2009: Regional Security Implications of Climate Change. A Synopsis. Maas, Achim and Dennis Tänzler. Berlin: Adelphi Consult.
2009: The future is here: Climate change in the Pacific. Maclellan, Nic. Oxfam Briefing Paper 2009. Oxfam Australia and Oxfam New Zealand.
2009: Environmental Law and Policy: Climate Change as a Threat to International Peace and Security. Gupta, Sonia. Perspectives on Global Issues.
2009: In Search of Shelter: Mapping the Effects of Climate Change on Human Migration and Displacement. Warner, K./Ehrhart, C./de Sherbinin, A./Adamo, S./Chai-Onn, T., CARE International.
2009: Climate Change and Environmental Migration. Seventeenth OSCE Economic and Environmental Forum. Briggs, C.
2008: Climate Change, National Security, and the Quadrennial Defense Review: Avoiding the perfect storm. Ackerman, J. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Spring 2008
2008:Climate Change and Security. Challenges for German Development Cooperation, Carius, A./Tänzler, D./Maas, A. Eschborn: GTZ.
2008: Climate Change: Addressing the Impact on Human Security. Dokos, T. et al. Hellenic Foundation for European and Foreign Policy.
2007-2008: The Security Implications of Climate Change, John Podesta and Peter Ogden
2007: Climate Change and Security in Asia: Issues and Implications for Australia. Barnett, John. Melbourne-Asia Policy Paper 9. The University of Melbourne.
2007: Climate change as the ‘new’ security threat: implications for Africa. Brown, O./Hammill, A./McLeman, R. International Affairs 83: 6, 1141-1154.
2007: Climate Change and National Security. An Agenda for Action. Busby, Joshua. CSR No. 32. Washington: Council on Foreign Relations.
2007: Beyond Disasters: Creating opportunities for peace. Chafe, Zoё and Michael Renner. Washington: Worldwatch Institute.
2007: Climate Change: A New Threat to Middle East Security. Freimuth, L./Bromberg, G./Mehyar, M./Al Khateeb, N. EcoPeace/Friends of the Earth Middle East.
2007: World in Transition. Climate Change as a Security Risk. Executive Summary. German Advisory Council on Global Change. Berlin.
2007: A climate of conflict. The links between climate change, war and peace. Smith, Dan and Janani Vivekananda. London: International Alert.
2007: Climate Change and Foreign Policy. Drexhage, John et al. Winnipeg: International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD).
2007: Climate Change and Borders. Paskal, Cleo. London: Chatham House.
2007: Climate Change, Human Security and Violent Conflict. Barnett, J. Adger, W. N. Political Geography 26 (2007) 639-655.
2007: Trends and Triggers: Climate Change and Civil Conflict in Sub-Saharan Africa. Hendrix, Cullen S. and Glaser, Sarah M., Political Geography, Vol. 26, Issue 6, August 2007.
2006: Is there “Climate Security” for India? “Tipping Points” as Drivers of Future Environmental Conflicts. Background Paper. Tänzler, D./Schinke, B./Bals, C.
2005: Climate Change poses greater security threat than terrorism. Global Security Brief No. 3., Sawin, Janet L. Washington, D.C.: Worldwatch Institute.
2004: The Security Implications of Climate Change for the UN System. Background paper. Purvis, Nigel and Joshua Busby. Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.
2003: An Abrupt Climate Change Scenario and Its Implications for United States National Security.Schwartz, Peter and Doug Randal. Emeryville, USA: Global Business Network (GBN).
2003: Weather Operations in the Transformation Era. John M. Lanicci, Air War College Maxwell Paper No. 29 (Maxwell AFB: Air University Press 2003)
2001: Security and Climate Change. Barnett, Jon. Tyndall Centre Working Paper 7
1989: The implications of global climatic changes for international security. Gleick, Peter. Climatic Change Vol. 15, No. 1/2, pp. 309-325.
1989: Greenhouse warming and international politics: Problems facing developing countries. Gleick, Peter. Ambio, Vol. 18, No. 6, pp. 333-339.